The SARS-CoV-2 virus is primarily transmitted through virus-laden fluid particles ejected from the mouth of infected people. In some countries, the public has been asked to use face covers to mitigate the risk of virus transmission – yet, their outward effectiveness is not ascertained. We used a Background Oriented Schlieren technique to investigate the air flow ejected by a person while quietly and heavily breathing, while coughing, and with different face covers. We found that all face covers without an outlet valve reduce the front flow through jet by more than 90%. For the FFP1 and FFP2 masks without exhalation valve, the front throughflow does not extend beyond one half and one quarter of a metre, respectively. Surgical and hand-made masks, and face shields, generate several leakage jets, including intense backward and downwards jets that may present major hazards. We also simulated an aerosol generating procedure (extubation) and we showed that this is a major hazard for clinicians. However, the exhaled air could be effectively extracted using an ad-hoc aspirator. These results can aid policy makers to make informed decisions and PPE developers to improve their product effectiveness by design.

Items in this Collection

  • Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk. Dataset 3: raw and processed data for tests 97 - 174 

    Viola, Ignazio Maria; Peterson, Brian; Pisetta, Gabriele; Pavar, Geethanjali; Akhtar, Hibbah; Menoloascina, Filippo; Mangano, Enzo; Nila, Alex; Molinari, Emanuela; Cummins, Cathal; McDougall, Catherine; Denison, Fiona; Dunn, Katherine; Gabl, Roman; Digard, Paul; Dunn, Mark; Lo, T. Y. M; Mehendale, Felicity
    "Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk" Supplementary Information. The information is grouped into four, zipped, datasets, all of which contain the same ReadMe.txt and Supplementary ...
  • Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk. Dataset 4: raw and processed data for tests 175 - 280 

    Viola, Ignazio Maria; Peterson, Brian; Pisetta, Gabriele; Pavar, Geethanjali; Akhtar, Hibbah; Menoloascina, Filippo; Mangano, Enzo; Nila, Alex; Molinari, Emanuela; Cummins, Cathal; McDougall, Catherine; Denison, Fiona; Dunn, Katherine; Gabl, Roman; Digard, Paul; Dunn, Mark; Lo, T. Y. M; Mehendale, Felicity
    "Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk" Supplementary Information. The information is grouped into four, zipped, datasets, all of which contain the same ReadMe.txt and Supplementary ...
  • Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk. Dataset 2: raw and processed data for tests 1 - 90 

    Viola, Ignazio Maria; Peterson, Brian; Pisetta, Gabriele; Pavar, Geethanjali; Akhtar, Hibbah; Menoloascina, Filippo; Mangano, Enzo; Nila, Alex; Molinari, Emanuela; Cummins, Cathal; McDougall, Catherine; Denison, Fiona; Dunn, Katherine; Gabl, Roman; Digard, Paul; Dunn, Mark; Lo, T. Y. M; Mehendale, Felicity
    "Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk" Supplementary Information. The information is grouped into four, zipped, datasets, all of which contain the same ReadMe.txt and Supplementary ...
  • Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk. Dataset 1: videos, images and spirometry results 

    Viola, Ignazio Maria; Peterson, Brian; Pisetta, Gabriele; Pavar, Geethanjali; Akhtar, Hibbah; Menoloascina, Filippo; Mangano, Enzo; Nila, Alex; Molinari, Emanuela; Cummins, Cathal; McDougall, Catherine; Denison, Fiona; Dunn, Katherine; Gabl, Roman; Digard, Paul; Dunn, Mark; Lo, T. Y. M.; Mehendale, Felicity
    "Face Coverings, Aerosol Dispersion and Mitigation of Virus Transmission Risk" Supplementary Information. The information is grouped into four, zipped, datasets, all of which contain the same ReadMe.txt and Supplementary ...